资源下载 - 从此开始!

下载我_精品源码软件教程资源网

您的位置:主页 > 网络编程 > 正文

Flutter 网络请求框架封装详解

2019-03-31 11:27 来源:互联网 编辑:admin

 Flutter 请求网络的三种方式

flutter 请求网络的方式有三种,分别是 Dart 原生的网络请求 HttpClient、第三方网络请求 http以及 Flutter 中的 Dio。我们可以比较一下这三种网络请求方式,然后封装为我们方便请求网络的工具类。

Dart 原生的网络请求 HttpClient

实现 Dart 获取网络数据的请求,一般我们需要以下几个步骤:

step 1: 原生的网络请求时不需要修改 pubspec.yaml 文件的,我们只需要在使用的地方引入所需包就可以了

import 'dart:convert';
import 'dart:io';

step 2:创建一个HttpClient

HttpClient httpClient = new HttpClient();

step 3: 打开Http连接,设置请求头

HttpClientRequest request = await httpClient.getUrl(uri);

在这一步中,我们可以设置人意的的请求方法,比如 Get 请求、Post 请求、Delete 请求。

例如:携带参数的请求

Uri uri=Uri(scheme: "https", host: "flutterchina.club", queryParameters: {
  "userName":"chen",
  "password":"123456"
 });

例如:设置请求的 header

request.headers.add("user-agent", "test");
request.headers.add("Authorization", "LKSJDLFJSDLKJSLKklsdj");

step 4: 等待连接服务器

HttpClientResponse response = await request.close();

step 5: 读取响应内容

if (response.statusCode == HttpStatus.ok) {
   _content = await response.transform(Utf8Decoder()).join();
}

step 6: 断开连接

httpClient.close();

以上的步骤是 dart 简单获取网络的方式,我们从上面可以看到,通过 HttpClient 发起网络请求时比较麻烦的,很多都要我们亲手处理,还有 Cookie 的管理也是比较麻烦的。

库 http step

1:pubspec.yaml 添加依赖

http: '>=0.11.3+12'

step 2: 在使用的地方导包

import 'package:http/http.dart' as http;

step 3: 发起请求

Get 请求

void getRequest() async {
  var client = http.Client();
  http.Response response = await client.get(url_2);
  _content = response.body;
 }

Post 请求

 void postRequest() async {
  var params = Map<String, String>();
  params["username"] = "hellonews";
  params["password"] = "123456";

  var client = http.Client();
  var response = await client.post(url_post, body: params);
  _content = response.body;
 }

相对比 Dart 原生的网络请求,第三方库 http 的网络请求方式是要方便好多,写起来也是挺爽的。

Flutter 发布的 dio

Dio 一个强大的 Dart Http 请求库,支持 Restful API、FormData、拦截器、请求取消、Cookie管理、文件上传/下载、超时等...

step 1:pubspec.yaml 添加依赖

dependencies:
 dio: ^1.0.9

step 2:导入引用包

import 'package:dio/dio.dart';

step 3:发起网络请求

Get 请求

void getRequest() async {
  Dio dio = new Dio();
  var response = await dio.get("/test?id=12&name=chen");
  _content = response.data.toString();
 }

对于 query 参数,我们可以通过对象来进行传递,上面的代码等同于:

void getRequest() async {
  Dio dio = new Dio();
  var response = await dio.get("/test",data:{"id":12,"name":"chen"});
  _content = response.data.toString();
 }

Post 请求

 void postRequest() async {
  var dio = new Dio();
  var response = await dio.post(url_post, data:{"id":12,"name":"wendu"});
  _content = response.data.toString();
 }

Dio 网络请求框架封装

 日志信息拦截

Dio 和 okhttp 一样,都会有一个请求拦截器和响应拦截器,通过拦截器,我们可以在请求之前或响应之后做一些同意的预处理。例如我们发起请求前查看我们请求的参数和头部,响应的时候,我们可以查看返回来的数据。

  Dio dio = new Dio();
  // 添加拦截器
  if (Config.DEBUG) {
   dio.interceptors.add(InterceptorsWrapper(
     onRequest: (RequestOptions options){
      print("\n================== 请求数据 ==========================");
      print("url = ${options.uri.toString()}");
      print("headers = ${options.headers}");
      print("params = ${options.data}");
     },
     onResponse: (Response response){
      print("\n================== 响应数据 ==========================");
      print("code = ${response.statusCode}");
      print("data = ${response.data}");
      print("\n");
     },
     onError: (DioError e){
      print("\n================== 错误响应数据 ======================");
      print("type = ${e.type}");
      print("message = ${e.message}");
      print("stackTrace = ${e.stackTrace}");
      print("\n");
     }
   ));
  }

如果我们想要移除拦截器,那么我们可以将其设置为 null

dio.interceptor.request.onSend=null;
dio.interceptor.response.onSuccess=null;
dio.interceptor.response.onError=null;

token 添加

  // 头部添加 token 验证
  headers["Authorization"] = "token lskjdlklsjkdklsjd333";
  option.headers = headers;
  ///超时
  option.connectTimeout = 15000;
  try {
   Response response = await dio.request(url, data: params, options: option);
  } on DioError catch (e) {
   // 请求错误处理
  }

自动生成 dart 的 json 实体类插件 FlutterJsonBeanFactory

在 Android 开发中,有 GsonFormat 这个插件来讲 json 数据自动转化成 Bean;那么在 Flutter 中也有类似的插件可以生产序列化的实体类的插件:FlutterJsonBeanFactory

step 1:下载插件 FlutterJsonBeanFactory,安装完成后重启

Setting -> Plugins -> Browse Respositories 中搜索 FlutterJsonBeanFactory

step 2:创建实体类,在指定目录下:

New -> dart bean class File from JSON

step 3:输入实体类名及 json 格式的数据

step 4:最后生成的实体类:LoginEntity

class LoginEntity {
	String easemobpassword;
	String username;

	LoginEntity({this.easemobpassword, this.username});

	LoginEntity.fromJson(Map<String, dynamic> json) {
		easemobpassword = json['easemobPassword'];
		username = json['username'];
	}

	Map<String, dynamic> toJson() {
		final Map<String, dynamic> data = new Map<String, dynamic>();
		data['easemobPassword'] = this.easemobpassword;
		data['username'] = this.username;
		return data;
	}
}

请求错误处理

 Response response;
  try {
   response = await dio.request(url, data: params, options: option);
  } on DioError catch (e) {
   // 请求错误处理
   Response errorResponse;
   if (e.response != null) {
    errorResponse = e.response;
   } else {
    errorResponse = new Response(statusCode: 666);
   }
   if (e.type == DioErrorType.CONNECT_TIMEOUT) {
    errorResponse.statusCode = Code.NETWORK_TIMEOUT;
   }
   if (Config.DEBUG) {
    print('请求异常: ' + e.toString());
    print('请求异常 url: ' + url);
   }
   return new ResultData(Code.errorHandleFunction(errorResponse.statusCode, e.message, noTip), false, errorResponse.statusCode);
  }

其中 ResultData 是网络结果处理的实体类

/**
 * 网络结果数据
 * Created by chenjianrun
 * Date: 2018-07-16
 */
class ResultData {
 var data;
 bool result;
 int code;
 var headers;

 ResultData(this.data, this.result, this.code, {this.headers});
}

Code 是处理网络错误的编码,并将错误结果通过 eventbus 发送出去,一般我们可以在 main_pager 中注册监听这个事件。

///网络请求错误编码
class Code {
 ///网络错误
 static const NETWORK_ERROR = -1;

 ///网络超时
 static const NETWORK_TIMEOUT = -2;

 ///网络返回数据格式化一次
 static const NETWORK_JSON_EXCEPTION = -3;

 static const SUCCESS = 200;

 static final EventBus eventBus = new EventBus();

 static errorHandleFunction(code, message, noTip) {
  if(noTip) {
   return message;
  }
  eventBus.fire(new HttpErrorEvent(code, message));
  return message;
 }
}

完成的网络请求类:HttpRequest

import 'dart:io';

import 'package:dio/dio.dart';
import 'package:private_tutor/common/SpUtils.dart';
import 'package:connectivity/connectivity.dart';

import 'dart:collection';

import 'package:private_tutor/common/config/Config.dart';
import 'package:private_tutor/net/ResultCode.dart';
import 'package:private_tutor/net/ResultData.dart';

///http请求管理类,可单独抽取出来
class HttpRequest {
 static String _baseUrl;
 static const CONTENT_TYPE_JSON = "application/json";
 static const CONTENT_TYPE_FORM = "application/x-www-form-urlencoded";
 static Map optionParams = {
  "timeoutMs": 15000,
  "token": null,
  "authorizationCode": null,
 };

 static setBaseUrl(String baseUrl){
  _baseUrl = baseUrl;
 }

 static get(url,param) async{
  return await request(_baseUrl+url, param, null, new Options(method:"GET"));
 }

 static post(url,param) async{
  return await request(_baseUrl+url, param, {"Accept": 'application/vnd.github.VERSION.full+json'}, new Options(method: 'POST'));
 }

 static delete(url,param) async{
  return await request(_baseUrl+url, param, null, new Options(method: 'DELETE'));
 }

 static put(url,param) async{
  return await request(_baseUrl+url, param, null, new Options(method: "PUT", contentType: ContentType.text));
 }

 ///发起网络请求
 ///[ url] 请求url
 ///[ params] 请求参数
 ///[ header] 外加头
 ///[ option] 配置
 static request(url, params, Map<String, String> header, Options option, {noTip = false}) async {

  //没有网络
  var connectivityResult = await (new Connectivity().checkConnectivity());
  if (connectivityResult == ConnectivityResult.none) {
   return new ResultData(Code.errorHandleFunction(Code.NETWORK_ERROR, "", noTip), false, Code.NETWORK_ERROR);
  }

  Map<String, String> headers = new HashMap();
  if (header != null) {
   headers.addAll(header);
  }

  //授权码
  if (optionParams["authorizationCode"] == null) {
   var authorizationCode = await getAuthorization();
   if (authorizationCode != null) {
    optionParams["authorizationCode"] = authorizationCode;
   }
  }

  headers["Authorization"] = optionParams["authorizationCode"];
  // 设置 baseUrl
  
  if (option != null) {
   option.headers = headers;
  } else{
   option = new Options(method: "get");
   option.headers = headers;
  }

  ///超时
  option.connectTimeout = 15000;

  Dio dio = new Dio();
  // 添加拦截器
  if (Config.DEBUG) {
   dio.interceptors.add(InterceptorsWrapper(
     onRequest: (RequestOptions options){
      print("\n================== 请求数据 ==========================");
      print("url = ${options.uri.toString()}");
      print("headers = ${options.headers}");
      print("params = ${options.data}");
     },
     onResponse: (Response response){
      print("\n================== 响应数据 ==========================");
      print("code = ${response.statusCode}");
      print("data = ${response.data}");
      print("\n");
     },
     onError: (DioError e){
      print("\n================== 错误响应数据 ======================");
      print("type = ${e.type}");
      print("message = ${e.message}");
      print("stackTrace = ${e.stackTrace}");
      print("\n");
     }
   ));
  }

  Response response;
  try {
   response = await dio.request(url, data: params, options: option);
  } on DioError catch (e) {
   // 请求错误处理
   Response errorResponse;
   if (e.response != null) {
    errorResponse = e.response;
   } else {
    errorResponse = new Response(statusCode: 666);
   }
   if (e.type == DioErrorType.CONNECT_TIMEOUT) {
    errorResponse.statusCode = Code.NETWORK_TIMEOUT;
   }
   if (Config.DEBUG) {
    print('请求异常: ' + e.toString());
    print('请求异常 url: ' + url);
   }
   return new ResultData(Code.errorHandleFunction(errorResponse.statusCode, e.message, noTip), false, errorResponse.statusCode);
  }

  try {
   if (option.contentType != null && option.contentType.primaryType == "text") {
    return new ResultData(response.data, true, Code.SUCCESS);
   } else {
    var responseJson = response.data;
    if (response.statusCode == 201 && responseJson["token"] != null) {
     optionParams["authorizationCode"] = 'token ' + responseJson["token"];
     await SpUtils.save(Config.TOKEN_KEY, optionParams["authorizationCode"]);
    }
   }
   if (response.statusCode == 200 || response.statusCode == 201) {
    return ResultData(response.data, true, Code.SUCCESS, headers: response.headers);
   }
  } catch (e) {
   print(e.toString() + url);
   return ResultData(response.data, false, response.statusCode, headers: response.headers);
  }
  return new ResultData(Code.errorHandleFunction(response.statusCode, "", noTip), false, response.statusCode);
 }

 ///清除授权
 static clearAuthorization() {
  optionParams["authorizationCode"] = null;
  SpUtils.remove(Config.TOKEN_KEY);
 }

 ///获取授权token
 static getAuthorization() async {
  String token = await SpUtils.get(Config.TOKEN_KEY);
  if (token == null) {
   String basic = await SpUtils.get(Config.USER_BASIC_CODE);
   if (basic == null) {
    //提示输入账号密码
   } else {
    //通过 basic 去获取token,获取到设置,返回token
    return "Basic $basic";
   }
  } else {
   optionParams["authorizationCode"] = token;
   return token;
  }
 }
}

使用示例

/// 登录 model
class LoginModel{
  // 手机号码登录
 static phoneLogin(String phone,String verifyCode) async{
  ResultData response = await HttpRequest.post(Address.phoneLogin, {"phoneNum" : phone,"captcha":verifyCode});
  if(response != null && response.result){
    PhoneLoginEntity phoneLoginEntity = PhoneLoginEntity.fromJson(json.decode(response.data));
    return new DataResult(phoneLoginEntity, true);
  }else{
   return new DataResult(null, false);
  }
 }

  // 获取验证码
 static getVerifyCode(String phone) async{
  ResultData response = await HttpRequest.get("${Address.getVerifyCode}?phone=${phone}", null);

//  var response = await HttpRequest.get(Address.getVerifyCode, {"phone":phone});
  if(response != null && response.result){
   VerifyCodeEntity entity = VerifyCodeEntity.fromJson(response.data);
   return new DataResult(entity, true);
  }else{
   return new DataResult(null, false);
  }
 }
}

以上就是本文的全部内容,希望对大家的学习有所帮助。

打赏一下,我们会为大家提供更多优质资源!

相关文章,95%的人会看!{有内幕、有真相...}

看过本文的人还看过

关闭

微信扫一扫

站长微信账号