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oracle数据与文本导入导出源码示例

2017-12-09 10:56 来源:未知 编辑:admin

oracle提供了sqlldr的工具,有时需要讲数据导入到文本,oracle的spool可以轻松实现。

方便的实现oracle导出数据到txt、txt导入数据到oracle。

一、导出数据到txt

用all_objects表做测试

SQL> desc all_objects;
 Name                   Null?  Type
 ----------------------------------------- -------- ----------------------------
 OWNER                   NOT NULL VARCHAR2(30)
 OBJECT_NAME                NOT NULL VARCHAR2(30)
 SUBOBJECT_NAME                   VARCHAR2(30)
 OBJECT_ID                 NOT NULL NUMBER
 DATA_OBJECT_ID                   NUMBER
 OBJECT_TYPE                    VARCHAR2(19)
 CREATED                  NOT NULL DATE
 LAST_DDL_TIME               NOT NULL DATE
 TIMESTAMP                     VARCHAR2(19)
 STATUS                       VARCHAR2(7)
 TEMPORARY                     VARCHAR2(1)
 GENERATED                     VARCHAR2(1)
 SECONDARY                     VARCHAR2(1)

拿object_id,object_name做导出、导入测试。

一些设置满足数据导出的样式:

vi exp_table.sql

set line 1000     --设置行的长度
set pagesize 0    --输出不换页
set feedback off   --默认的当一条sql发出的时候,oracle会给一个反馈,比如说创建表的时候,如果成功命令行会返回类似:Table created的反馈,off后不显示反馈
set heading off    --不显示表头信息
set trimspool on   --如果trimspool设置为on,将移除spool文件中的尾部空
set trims on     --去掉空字符
set echo off;      --显示start启动的脚本中的每个sql命令,缺省为on
set colsep '|'     --设置分隔符
set termout off    --不在屏幕上显示结果
spool db1.txt     --记录数据到db1.txt
select object_id,object_name from all_objects; --导出数据语句
spool off       --收集完毕
exit

一切就绪后导出数据:

[oracle@centos5 ~]$ sqlplus test/test @exp_table.sql 
SQL*Plus: Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Production on Thu Jun 13 16:35:14 2013
Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle. All Rights Reserved.
Connected to:
Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
Disconnected from Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@centos5 ~]$ sed -i 's/ //g' db1.txt --可选,去除每行开头部分的空格
[oracle@centos5 ~]$ more db1.txt 20|ICOL$
44|I_USER1
28|CON$
15|UNDO$
29|C_COBJ#
3|I_OBJ#
25|PROXY_ROLE_DATA$

导出后检查数据的记录数是否正确

[oracle@centos5 ~]$ cat db1.txt |wc -l
49988
[oracle@centos5 ~]$ sqlplus test/test
SQL*Plus: Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Production on Thu Jun 13 16:36:21 2013
Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle. All Rights Reserved.
Connected to:
Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
SQL> select count(*) from all_objects;
 COUNT(*)
----------
   49988 --数据正确

二、从txt导入数据到oracle

sqlldr是通过一个control文件设定后,从文本导入数据

建立一张测试表

SQL> create table tb_sqlldr (id number,name varchar2(50));
Table created.

建立一个control文件

vi tb_sqlldr.ctl

load data         
infile 'db1.txt'      --数据来源文本
append into table tb_sqlldr  --数据导入到表tb_sqldr中,导入方式为追加,如果想覆盖
fields terminated by "|"  --4、字段终止于X'09',是一个制表符(tab)
(id,name)          --定义对应的字段名称,注意顺序

导入数据分成四种模式,可以根据需求选择:

APPEND // 原先的表有数据 就加在后面

INSERT // 装载空表 如果原先的表有数据 sqlloader会停止 默认值

REPLACE // 原先的表有数据 原先的数据会全部删除

TRUNCATE // 指定的内容和replace的相同 会用truncate语句删除现存数据

执行导入操作

sqlldr userid=test/test control=tb_sqlldr.ctl

差不多5w的数据短短2s解决

执行导入后验证数据

SQL> select count(*) from tb_sqlldr;
 COUNT(*)
----------
   49988

导入成功

再执行一次导入操作,由于设置为追加:

SQL> select count(*) from tb_sqlldr;
 COUNT(*)
----------
   99976

记录翻倍

sqlldr还有很多参数供选择,比如log、bad这些,查看帮助即可。

[oracle@centos5 ~]$ sqlldr
SQL*Loader: Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Production on Thu Jun 13 17:07:26 2013
Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Usage: SQLLDR keyword=value [,keyword=value,...]
Valid Keywords:
  userid -- ORACLE username/password      
  control -- control file name         
    log -- log file name           
    bad -- bad file name           
   data -- data file name           
  discard -- discard file name         
discardmax -- number of discards to allow     (Default all)
   skip -- number of logical records to skip  (Default 0)
   load -- number of logical records to load  (Default all)
  errors -- number of errors to allow      (Default 50)
   rows -- number of rows in conventional path bind array or between direct path data saves
        (Default: Conventional path 64, Direct path all)
 bindsize -- size of conventional path bind array in bytes (Default 256000)
  silent -- suppress messages during run (header,feedback,errors,discards,partitions)
  direct -- use direct path           (Default FALSE)
  parfile -- parameter file: name of file that contains parameter specifications
 parallel -- do parallel load           (Default FALSE)
   file -- file to allocate extents from   
skip_unusable_indexes -- disallow/allow unusable indexes or index partitions (Default FALSE)
skip_index_maintenance -- do not maintain indexes, mark affected indexes as unusable (Default FALSE)
commit_discontinued -- commit loaded rows when load is discontinued (Default FALSE)
 readsize -- size of read buffer         (Default 1048576)
external_table -- use external table for load; NOT_USED, GENERATE_ONLY, EXECUTE (Default NOT_USED)
columnarrayrows -- number of rows for direct path column array (Default 5000)
streamsize -- size of direct path stream buffer in bytes (Default 256000)
multithreading -- use multithreading in direct path 
 resumable -- enable or disable resumable for current session (Default FALSE)
resumable_name -- text string to help identify resumable statement
resumable_timeout -- wait time (in seconds) for RESUMABLE (Default 7200)
date_cache -- size (in entries) of date conversion cache (Default 1000)
PLEASE NOTE: Command-line parameters may be specified either by
position or by keywords. An example of the former case is 'sqlldr
scott/tiger foo'; an example of the latter is 'sqlldr control=foo
userid=scott/tiger'. One may specify parameters by position before
but not after parameters specified by keywords. For example,
'sqlldr scott/tiger control=foo logfile=log' is allowed, but
'sqlldr scott/tiger control=foo log' is not, even though the
position of the parameter 'log' is correct.

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