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MSSQL监控数据库的DDL操作(创建,修改,删除存储

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前言: 有时候,一个数据库有多个帐号,包括数据库管理员,开发人员,运维支撑人员等,可能有很多帐号都有比较大的权限,例如DDL操作权限(创建,修改,删除存储过程,创建,修改,删除表等),账户多了,管理起来就会相当麻烦,容易产生混乱,如果数据库管理员不监控数据库架构变更的话,就不知道谁对数据库架构做了啥改动(此处改动仅仅只DDL操作),尤其有时候,有些开发人员可能不按规章制度办事,绕过或忘了通知发布人员或DBA,直接去生产机做一些DDL操作,那么我们就需要对数据库架构某些更改的事件进行监控,如果能够监控并留下证据,这样既可以让DBA或相关管理人员知晓这些变更,有效管理数据库,也可以避免出现问题,出现扯皮现象,最后DBA成了背黑锅的。

下面就是一个解决上述问题的方案,我们通过创建一个表DatabaseLog和DDL触发器来解决问题,首先在msdb数据库里面新建一个表DatabaseLog,用来保存DDL触发器获取的信息。其中DDL触发器主要通过EVENTDATA()函数返回有关服务器或数据库事件的信息。

复制代码 代码如下:


USE msdb;
GO
CREATE TABLE [dbo].[DatabaseLog]
(
    [DatabaseLogID]   [int]    IDENTITY(1,1) NOT NULL,
    [PostTime]        [datetime] NOT NULL,
    [DatabaseUser]    [sysname] COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS NOT NULL,
    [LoginName]       [sysname] COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS NULL,
    [ClientHost]      [sysname] COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS NULL,
    [Event]           [sysname] COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS NOT NULL,
    [Schema]          [sysname] COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS NULL,
    [Object]          [sysname] COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS NULL,
    [TSQL]            [nvarchar](max) COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS NOT NULL,
    [XmlEvent]        [xml] NOT NULL,
CONSTRAINT [PK_DatabaseLog_DatabaseLogID] PRIMARY KEY NONCLUSTERED
(
    [DatabaseLogID] ASC
  )WITH (PAD_INDEX= OFF, IGNORE_DUP_KEY = OFF) ON [PRIMARY]
) ON [PRIMARY]
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N'MS_Description', @value=N'Primary key for DatabaseLog records.' , @level0type=N'SCHEMA',@level0name=N'dbo', @level1type=N'TABLE',@level1name=N'DatabaseLog', @level2type=N'COLUMN',@level2name=N'DatabaseLogID'
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N'MS_Description', @value=N'The date and time the DDL change occurred.' , @level0type=N'SCHEMA',@level0name=N'dbo', @level1type=N'TABLE',@level1name=N'DatabaseLog', @level2type=N'COLUMN',@level2name=N'PostTime'
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N'MS_Description', @value=N'The user who implemented the DDL change.' , @level0type=N'SCHEMA',@level0name=N'dbo', @level1type=N'TABLE',@level1name=N'DatabaseLog', @level2type=N'COLUMN',@level2name=N'DatabaseUser'
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N'MS_Description', @value=N'The login which implemented the DDL change.' , @level0type=N'SCHEMA',@level0name=N'dbo', @level1type=N'TABLE',@level1name=N'DatabaseLog', @level2type=N'COLUMN',@level2name=N'LoginName'
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N'MS_Description', @value=N'The client machine on which implemented the DDL change.' , @level0type=N'SCHEMA',@level0name=N'dbo', @level1type=N'TABLE',@level1name=N'DatabaseLog', @level2type=N'COLUMN',@level2name=N'ClientHost'
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N'MS_Description', @value=N'The type of DDL statement that was executed.' , @level0type=N'SCHEMA',@level0name=N'dbo', @level1type=N'TABLE',@level1name=N'DatabaseLog', @level2type=N'COLUMN',@level2name=N'Event'
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N'MS_Description', @value=N'The schema to which the changed object belongs.' , @level0type=N'SCHEMA',@level0name=N'dbo', @level1type=N'TABLE',@level1name=N'DatabaseLog', @level2type=N'COLUMN',@level2name=N'Schema'
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N'MS_Description', @value=N'The object that was changed by the DDL statment.' , @level0type=N'SCHEMA',@level0name=N'dbo', @level1type=N'TABLE',@level1name=N'DatabaseLog', @level2type=N'COLUMN',@level2name=N'Object'
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N'MS_Description', @value=N'The exact Transact-SQL statement that was executed.' , @level0type=N'SCHEMA',@level0name=N'dbo', @level1type=N'TABLE',@level1name=N'DatabaseLog', @level2type=N'COLUMN',@level2name=N'TSQL'
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N'MS_Description', @value=N'The raw XML data generated by database trigger.' , @level0type=N'SCHEMA',@level0name=N'dbo', @level1type=N'TABLE',@level1name=N'DatabaseLog', @level2type=N'COLUMN',@level2name=N'XmlEvent'
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N'MS_Description', @value=N'Audit table tracking all DDL changes made to the database. Data is captured by the database trigger ddlDatabaseTriggerLog.' , @level0type=N'SCHEMA',@level0name=N'dbo', @level1type=N'TABLE',@level1name=N'DatabaseLog'
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N'MS_Description', @value=N'Primary key (nonclustered) constraint' , @level0type=N'SCHEMA',@level0name=N'dbo', @level1type=N'TABLE',@level1name=N'DatabaseLog', @level2type=N'CONSTRAINT',@level2name=N'PK_DatabaseLog_DatabaseLogID'
GO

例如,我要监控数据库MyAssistant的DDL操作,那么我们首先在“数据库邮件”里面创建一个配置名为“ DataBase_DDL_Event”的配置文件(profile name),这个就不多讲了,不知道配置的,自己先练练手把,假如我需要让数据库把监控到DDL操作变动相信信息发送到我的邮箱 *****@***.com(用你自己的邮箱替代),那么只需要修改下面代码的邮箱和profile_name即可。

复制代码 代码如下:

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